Your Test Results

Want to know more about what your test results mean? See our handy guide below on what your results could mean for you.

We always recommend speaking to a medical professional about any results you are unsure of, or that are out of range.

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Blood Cells / Blood Count
If your basophil count is high, this is called basophilia. This could be due to several reasons, but is often caused by inflammatory reactions from food or a drug hypersensitivity. It could also be related to an inflammatory bowel issue or provoked by some infections. A suboptimal thyroid function (hypothyroidism) has also been linked with this result.  A low basophil level is called Basopenia. It can be caused by infections, severe allergies, or an overactive thyroid gland.  If your results are out of range we would advise you to discuss them with a GP in the context of your overall health to consider further investigations and follow up.
 
Eosinophils are involved in several functions inside our bodies: movement to inflamed areas, trapping substances, killing cells, anti-parasitic and bactericidal activity, participating in immediate allergic reactions, and modulating inflammatory responses.    Elevated levels of eosinophils (called eosinophilia) are most often due to allergic reactions or infections (often parasitic).  A low number of eosinophils in the blood (eosinopenia) can occur with Cushing syndrome, bloodstream infections (sepsis), and treatment with corticosteroids.  However, a low number of eosinophils does not usually cause problems because other parts of the immune system compensate adequately.  If you are not feeling well we would advise you to discuss this result with a GP, if not, we would recommend repeating this test in a few months time to make sure it has normalised.
If your neutrophils count is lower than normal we call this neutropenia. This could be due to many reasons: e.g., a recent or ongoing infection, autoimmune disease and some hematologic disorders and medications (antipsychotics) amongst others. Elevated neutrophils levels are typically a sign of a recent or ongoing bacterial infection. We would advise you to discuss this result with a GP or repeat the test in a few weeks to see whether your results have normalised.
 
If your haematocrit levels are lower than normal, this can imply mild anaemia. We would advise you to discuss these results with a GP to consider further investigations.   If your haematocrit levels are higher than normal, this can be due to dehydration, or a disorder such as polycythemia vera, that causes your body to produce too many red blood cells. If you are not feeling well we would advise discussing these results with a GP. If you are otherwise feeling well, we would recommend to have this test repeated in a few weeks to make sure it has normalised.
 
If your haemoglobin level is lower than normal, this can be a sign of iron deficiency anaemia.  A slightly low level is not always a sign of illness and can be normal in some people, such as for women with menstrual periods, pregnant women, someone with recent heavy blood loss or those who frequently donate blood.   This may not be significant but we advise speaking to a GP if you are feeling unwell.  If your haemoglobin is elevated we call this polycythaemia, which could either be primary, secondary or stress related.   The latter one is the most common and is often due to dehydration, high blood pressure, smoking, stress or alcohol.    We would advise you to discuss these results with a GP to consider more investigations.
 
If your lymphocytes result is higher or lower than normal this could be due to many reasons, but is most commonly due a viral infection.    If you are not feeling well we would advise you to discuss this result with a GP.   If you are otherwise feeling well we would recommend to have this test repeated in a few weeks to make sure it has normalised.
 
High MCH scores are commonly a sign of macrocytic anaemia. This condition occurs when the blood cells are too big, which can be a result of not having enough vitamin B12 or folic acid in the body.    A low MCH value typically indicates the presence of iron deficiency anaemia.    If your MCH levels are higher or lower than normal it may not be significant; however, we would advise you to discuss this with a GP to consider further investigations.
 
If your MCV is higher than normal this is commonly due to vitamin B12 or folate deficiency, high alcohol intake, some medications or hypothyroidism.    If your red cell MCV levels are lower than normal, this can possible suggest an underlying haemoglobinopathy, but it can also be due to inflammation, kidney or liver disease, vitamin B12 or folate deficiency, high alcohol intake, some medications, hypothyroidism and some hematologic disorders, amongst others.  We would advise you to discuss these results with a GP in the context of your overall health to consider further investigations and follow-up.    We would advise you to discuss these results with a GP to consider further investigations.
 
If your Mean Platelet Volume (MPV) is elevated this is commonly due to dehydration, haemoconcentration, menstruation, oral contraceptives, or strenuous exercise, amongst others.   If your Mean Platelet Volume (MPV) is lower than normal, this typically means your blood platelets are smaller than usually expected. This could be due to many different reasons, such as anaemia, inflammation or infection. We would advise you to speak to a GP in the context of your overall health to consider further investigations and follow-up if required.
 
If your monocytes count is lower than normal this might be due to some hematologic disorders, glucocorticoid administration or steroid intake.  High monocytes levels may be due to a recent infection.   We would advise you to discuss this result with a GP in the context of your overall health to consider further investigations and follow-up.
 
If your platelet count is lower than normal this could be due to a recent infection, excessive alcohol consumption, anaemia or vitamin deficiencies.    An elevated platelet count is commonly due to dehydration or haemoconcentration.    We would advise you to discuss this result with a GP in the context of your overall health to consider further investigations and follow up, or repeat the test in a few weeks to see whether your results have normalised.
This test is a measurement of the range in the volume and size of your red blood cells. A higher than normal result could be an indication of a nutrient deficiency, e.g. iron deficiency.   Besides iron deficiency, there are other causes that need to be explored e.g. some thalassaemia’s (congenital abnormalities) or inflammation amongst others. We would advise you to discuss these results with a GP to consider further investigations and/or supplementation.    A low RDW means your red blood cells are all about the same size and is usually not a cause for concern.     
 
If your red cell count is lower than normal this could indicate a vitamin B6, B12 or folate deficiency. It may also signify internal bleeding, kidney disease or malnutrition.   A high RCC is called polycythaemia, which could either be primary or secondary. The latter is the most common and is often due to dehydration, high blood pressure, smoking, stress or alcohol.    We would advise you to discuss your result with a GP to consider more investigations and follow-up.
 
Common causes of low White Cell Counts can include infections, autoimmune disorders, some medicines or cancer treatments such as radiotherapy.  A high WCC could be due to many reasons, but is most commonly due to a recent or ongoing bacterial infection. If you are not feeling well, we would strongly advise you to seek urgent medical assistance. If you are otherwise well, we advise you to discuss these results with a GP as soon as possible to to get this further investigated and treated.
Cholesterol

HDL cholesterol is usually considered “good cholesterol” and is cardioprotective; however you ca have too much. If you have high HDL levels, we would advise you to discuss these results with a GP to consider further investigations. If you have low HDL levels, this can also be problematic, depending on your other lipid levels (LDL and triglycerides).  Lifestyle changes should be considered if you have low HDL, especially if you have underlying health problems such as hypertension.

Eat heart-healthy foods like foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids, increase soluble fibre into your diet, eliminate trans fats and reduce saturated fats
Increase your daily physical activity
Lose weight if you are overweight
Drink alcohol in moderation if you drink
If you are a smoker: consider stopping smoking

LDL is the ‘bad’ cholesterol in our body, which can clog our blood vessels making it difficult for blood to travel round our organs and tissues. This can lead to clots, heart attack and stroke.   If you are not already aware of this it may be sensible to see a doctor to consider ways to treat this.    Lifestyle changes should be considered but there are times when elevated lipid levels need to be treated more aggressively if you have underlying health problems like for example hypertension.    Below are a few lifestyle changes that might improve your lipid levels: Eat heart-healthy foods like foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids, increase soluble fibre into your diet, eliminate trans fats and reduce saturated fats Increase your daily physical activity Lose weight if you are overweight Drink alcohol in moderation if you drink If you are a smoker: consider stopping smoking
Your Total cholesterol over HDL ratio is one of the numerous cardiovascular risk factors (for stroke and heart attack) besides others like smoking, family history, age, diabetes and high blood pressure.  It is advisable to keep this ratio as low as possible.    Lifestyle changes should be considered to help that, but there are times when elevated lipid levels need to be treated more aggressively if you have underlying health problems like for example hypertension.  Please follow the guidance provided for LDL results in the section above to help make lifestyle changes.
If your Triglycerides level is elevated and you are not already aware of this it may be sensible to see a doctor to consider ways to treat this.    Lifestyle changes should be considered but there are times when elevated lipid levels need to be treated more aggressively if you have underlying health problems like for example hypertension.    Please follow the guidance provided for LDL results in the section above to help make lifestyle changes.
 
COVID-19
If your Covid-19 antibody test is positive, this implied that your immune system produced longer-acting antibodies and you have some degree of functional immunity to the virus following a vaccination.    If your Covid-19 antibody test is negative, this means that no antibodies were identified in your blood as having been produced by your immune system.
Diabetes / HbA1c
In the UK this test is used for diagnosing type 2 diabetes. Any level above 48mmol/mol is considered as type 2 diabetes.    If your results are elevated above or close to 48mmol/mol, we would advise you to contact a GP to discuss this result and to consider further investigations and possibly treatment.    If your HbA1c is lower than expected this could be due to certain medication, late-stage pregnancy in women, chronic liver disease, or excessive alcohol consumption.
Heart Health - Creatine Kinase
If your creatine kinase is elevated, this is most likely due to recent exercise but could also be a side-effect of certain medications amongst other things.    If you have not engaged in any physical activity recently, we would advise you to discuss this result with a GP.    If your creatine kinase level is lower than normal, this is most likely due to muscle mass loss secondary to physical inactivity, inflammation, or ageing.
Hormones
AMH stands for Anti-Mullerian Hormone. AMH is produced directly by the ovarian follicles and therefore AMH levels correlate with the number of follicles in your ovaries.   It can be assessed on any day of your period and it does not vary with the menstrual cycle.    It is important to understand that AMH will naturally decline with age and low levels can indicate the Menopause.   Occasionally, high levels can be suggestive of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome in some patients.   We would advise you to discuss your result with your clinician to have it assessed in the context of your overall medical history.
 
DHEA stands for dehydroepiandrosterone. It is a weak male hormone (androgen) produced by the adrenal glands in both men and women.  Although DHEA-sulfate is the most abundant hormone in the body, its exact function is still not known.    In men, the male hormone effect may not be important if testosterone level is normal. In women, DHEA contributes to normal libido and sexual satisfaction.  DHEA may also have effects on the immune system.  Increased levels of DHEA-sulfate may be due to polycystic ovary syndrome in female, a growth or tumour on the adrenal gland, or sometimes a genetic disorder called congenital adrenal hyperplasia.   DHEA-Sulfate levels naturally decline with age in both males and females. However significantly low levels can be an indication of adrenal glad disorders such as Addison Disease, the pituitary gland not producing enough hormones, or that you are taking glucocorticoid medicines. If you are concerned about your DHEA-sulfate levels, we recommend speaking to a medial professional and retesting in 2-3 months to check if your levels have changed.
 
FSH is a hormone released by the pituitary gland, located on the underside of the brain.    High FSH levels in females may indicate menopause has started or is taking place, a tumour in the pituitary gland or that you are receiving hormone therapy.    In males, high levels may mean that the testicles are not functioning properly, possibly due to advancing age (male menopause or andropause), damage to testicles due to alcohol abuse, chemotherapy or radiation, hormone treatment or genetic problems such as Klinefelter Syndrome.    Low FSH levels may be present due to being underweight or recent rapid weight loss, not producing eggs in females, pregnancy in females or a dysfunction of the pituitary gland.     We would recommend testing again in a couple of months to see if the results have changed, and speaking to a medical professional if you are concerned with the result.
 
A free androgen index (FAI) is a ratio figured out after a blood test for testosterone. It&#8217;s used to see if you have abnormal androgen levels.<p id=””>Both men and women make male hormones called androgens, which include testosterone. During puberty, testosterone helps children develop into adults. As you age, levels of this hormone can fall. This causes health problems for both men and women.<p id=””>Low testosterone levels in men can lead to a reduction in sex drive. Testosterone deficiency is common in men who also have type 2 diabetes, causing low mood, reduced performance and low libido.  Moderately high testosterone in women can be caused by Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS).[5] PCOS can cause male features to develop such as facial hair as well as weight gain and irregular periods. The development of male features and weight gain can have a profound effect on mental health and self-esteem.
 
In females, elevated levels of Luteinising Hormone (LH) can be a sign that you are not ovulating or that you are experiencing the menopause.    It can also be a sign of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS).  In males, it can indicate damage to the testicles due to cancer treatment, infection or excessive alcohol consumption.    We would advise discussing this with a GP to consider further investigations.
 
Oestradiol is a type of oestrogen, or estrogen, a sex hormone that plays an essential role in the body. Abnormal levels can affect many aspects of health.  For instance, high oestradiol levels may cause weight gain, fatigue, low mood, and severe premenstrual syndrome (PMS) in females. Oestradiol is also present in males but in much smaller amounts. Oestradiol levels that exceed a healthy range can make it difficult to get an erection or reduce fertility. It is normal for Oestradiol levels to rise and fall to a certain extent, but more serious problems can occur if the levels stay consistently elevated.   High Oestradiol can be caused by obesity, stress, alcohol consumption, polycystic ovary syndrome in women and certain cancers. Insulin resistance also increases oestrogen levels. Specifically in males, oestrogen can also become high relative to the amount of testosterone in the body if testosterone levels become low.
 
Progesterone belongs to a group of steroid hormones called ‘progestogens’ and has an important role in the menstrual cycle and maintaining the early stages iof pregnancy in females.   There are no known serious medical consequences due to the body making too much progesterone. Levels of progesterone do increase naturally in pregnancy.   If progesterone is absent or levels are too low, irregular and heavy menstrual bleeding can occur. A drop in progesterone during pregnancy can result in a miscarriage and early labour. Mothers at risk of giving birth too soon can be given a synthetic form of progesterone to delay the onset of labour.  Lack of progesterone in the bloodstream can mean the ovary has failed to release an egg at ovulation, as can occur in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.      In males, progesterone is produced by the body to create testosterone, and it is produced in the adrenal glands and the testes.   Low levels of progesterone in males can lead to increased risk of osteoporosis, arthritis and prostate cancer.      We would advise speaking to a medical professional if you are concerned about your progesterone levels.
 
If your Prolactin level is low, this may not be significant but could mean that your pituitary gland is not functioning correctly and is commonly due to postpartum pituitary necrosis (Sheehan syndrome).  It can also be due to a pituitary tumour, head injury, infections (e.g., tuberculosis), smoking and medication intake (e.g., L-dopa, bromocriptine), amongst others.  If your prolactin level is elevated, this is most commonly due to a physiological (e.g., stress, postprandially, pain, sleep) or drug-related (e.g., metoclopramide, antihistamines, contraceptive pill, anti-hypertensives, psychiatric medications) reasons, but it can also be due to other causes such as hypothyroidism and some tumours (e.g., prolactinoma), amongst others.   We would strongly advise you to discuss this result with a GP in the context of your overall health as soon as possible to consider further investigations and follow-up.
 
SHBG is a serum globulin (protein) that binds the majority of your testosterone and, to a lesser extent, oestradiol.    Decreased SHBG levels can be seen in obesity, hyperinsulinemia, hypothyroidism and growth hormone excess, as well as with glucocorticoids, androgens, progestins. It can also be familial.  SHBG is commonly increased by age, smoking, hyperthyroidism and male hormone deficiency.  We would advise you to discuss this result with a GP in the context of your overall health.
 
Usually, we do not draw any conclusions after a single test result. Serial testing is required, preferably at the same time of the day and optimally around 9-10 am when testosterone is supposed to be at its highest level.   If you have symptoms of low testosterone (e.g., mood changes and irritability, decreased ability to exercise, fat redistribution, trouble sleeping or increased tiredness, poor concentration and short-term memory, amongst others), please discuss this result with a GP. If not, we would advise you to repeat the test in a few weeks to make sure it has normalised.  High levels of testosterone can be due to different reasons, but is often due to the intake of testosterone or anabolic steroid tablets or the application of testosterone gels.  If this is not your case, it would be advisable to discuss this result with a GP to consider further investigations.  For females with high testosterone levels, we advise discussing this result with a GP in the context of your full medical history, e.g. underlying conditions such as PCOS (Polycystic Ovary Syndrome).
Inflammation
If your CRP level is elevated this is a sign of infection (commonly viral or bacterial) or inflammation in the body.    If you feel unwell, we would advise you to contact a GP to discuss this result. If you have no symptoms otherwise, we would advise you to repeat this test in a few weeks time to make sure it has normalised.
Iron
If your ferritin level is lower than normal, this can indicate that your body&#8217;s iron stores are low and that you have iron deficiency. This can lead to anaemia.  High levels of ferritin can be due to many reasons, but is often related to ongoing inflammation (i.e. alcohol intake/carrying extra weight) or an infection. It could also be suggestive of genetic conditions which cause iron overload like e.g. haemochromatosis. We advise discussing your result with a GP in the context of your overall health.
 
If your iron studies imply higher than normal blood iron levels this could be due to a few reasons like e.g. ongoing inflammation, an infection or a congenital disorder, called haemochromatosis.  Low levels are most likely due to a decreased dietary iron intake or an increased loss (e.g. possibly from menstrual bleeding).   We would advise you to discuss these results with a GP to consider further investigations.
 
If your transferrin saturation study implies lower than normal blood iron levels this is most likely due to a decreased dietary iron intake or an increased loss (e.g. possibly from menstrual bleeding).   Elevated levels of transferrin may not be significant, however, can indicate low iron, which means there is less iron bound to transferrin, allowing for a high circulation of non-bound iron transferrin in the body, revealing a possible iron deficiency anaemia.   We would advise you to discuss this result with a GP to consider further investigations and/or supplementation.
 
If your unsaturated iron binding concentration study implies higher than normal blood iron levels this could be due to a few reasons like e.g. ongoing inflammation, an infection or a congenital disorder, called haemochromatosis.    Low unsaturated iron binding concentration study implies lower than normal blood iron levels. This can be due to various reasons including anaemia, lower than normal levels of blood protein (hypoproteinaemia), inflammation or liver disease.    We would advise you to discuss this result with a GP to consider further investigations.
 
Kidney Function
 Creatinine is a waste product produced in your muscles from the breakdown of a compound called creatine.   Almost all creatinine is excreted by the kidneys, so blood levels for creatinine are a good measure of how well your kidneys are working.  High levels of creatinine are commonly due to renal issues or the intake of certain medications (e.g., anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen and naproxen), amongst others.   Low levels of creatinine are often linked with muscle mass or the amount of muscle in your body which goes down with age or due to illness. Certain medications can also lower creatinine. We would advise to discuss this result with a GP.
 
Low levels of Sodium could be due to different causes but is often due to drinking too much water, medication which makes you urinate or sweat more, such as diuretics, antidepressants and pain medicines, recent vomiting or diarrhoea or hormone imbalances. High sodium levels could be due to different causes but is often due to dehydration, burns, excessive sweating (endurance sportsmen and women under heat stress), diarrhoea, laxative abuse, vomiting, kidney issues, dialysis, medications (especially loop diuretics), hyperaldosteronism and very strenuous exercise, amongst others.     If you are not feeling well, we would strongly advise you to seek urgent medical assistance.    If you are otherwise well, we advise you to discuss this result with a GP as soon as possible in the context of your overall health to consider further investigations and treatment.
 
High Urea levels could be due to a few different reasons. Urea is produced in the liver as a by-product of protein metabolism.  Plasma levels can be affected by your dietary protein intake, your total muscle mass and your protein turnover.   The most likely reasons for an increased urea level are: a high protein diet, kidney issues, dehydration and some medications (e.g. steroids, diuretics).  The most likely reasons for a decreased urea level are: a low protein diet, malabsorption or overhydration.   We would advise you to discuss this result with a GP ASAP to consider further investigations and follow-up.
 
High Potassium levels could be due to different causes but is often due to chronic kidney disease, medication intake (e.g., anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen and naproxen, medications prescribed to control blood pressure or for heart failure), dehydration (e.g., due to diarrhoea or vomiting), having blood transfusions, a congenital disorder called adrenal hyperplasia or hypoaldosteronism, amongst others. Low potassium levels can be due to certain medications which increase urination, leading to more potassium being excreted, such as diuretics for those with high blood pressure or heart disease. It can also be caused by recent vomiting or diarrhoea, kidney disease or excessive alcohol consumption.    If you are not feeling well, we strongly advise you to seek urgent medical assistance. If you are otherwise well, we advise you to discuss this result with a GP as soon as possible to consider further investigations and treatment.
Liver Function
If your albumin level specifically is lower or higher than normal, this is a non-specific finding and is often due to an inadequate diet, inflammation, liver or kidney issues. We would advise discussing this result with a GP in line with any other results received to see if other tests are warranted.
 
Whilst slight low levels of ALP are usually not a cause for concern, there are a few reasons and factors that may decrease them e.g., a deficiency of zinc or magnesium or a rare genetic disorder called hypophosphatasia (HPP) which affects bones and teeth, amongst others. High levels of ALP can be caused by the liver not functioning correctly, or a blockage in the bile ducts.    However, higher-than-normal ALP levels for your age and sex may not necessarily mean you have a problem &#8211; children and teens naturally have higher levels than adults because their bones are still developing.   We would advise you to discuss this result with a GP to consider if further investigations are warranted.
 
Elevated levels of ALT enzyme could be due to many reasons, but is often due to medication intake (e.g. paracetamol, anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, cholesterol medications) or alcohol. Low levels of ALT are typically not a cause for concern, but can sometimes be due to smoking, heavy frequent exercise, hormone replacement therapy medication or oral contraceptives.    If you are not feeling well, we would advise you to contact a GP to discuss this result. If you are otherwise well we would recommend to repeat this test in about 2 months time to make sure it has normalised.
 
Elevated levels of AST could be due to many reasons, but is often due to medication intake (e.g. paracetamol, anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, cholesterol medications) or alcohol.    If you are not feeling well, we would advise you to contact a GP to discuss these results. If you are otherwise well we would recommend to repeat these tests in about 2 months time to make sure they have normalised.
 
If your bilirubin levels are elevated, this could be due to many reasons, but is often due to medication intake (e.g. paracetamol, anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, cholesterol medications) or alcohol.   If you are not feeling well, we would advise you to contact a GP to discuss these results. If you are otherwise well we would recommend to repeat these tests in about 2 months time to make sure they have normalised.
 
If your Gamma GT levels are elevated, this could be due to many reasons, but is often due to medication intake (e.g. paracetamol, anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, cholesterol medications) or alcohol.    If your Gamma GT level is low &#8211; this is usually reassuring and it means you probably don&#8217;t have liver disease, especially if your other liver tests are normal.     If you are not feeling well, we would advise you to contact a GP to discuss these results.  If you are otherwise well we would recommend to repeat these tests in about 2 months time to make sure they have normalised.
 
 
If your globulin level is lower than normal this is a non-specific finding, implying a decrease in your serum globulins, e.g. gammaglobulins (better know ‘antibodies’) our bodies produce against invading organisms.   This could be due to liver disease or kidney disease.  If your globulin levels are elevated, this could be due to several reasons: e.g. an infection, liver issues, auto-immune disease.    
If you have symptoms, please discuss this result with a GP. If not, we would advise you to repeat these tests in a couple of months time to make sure they have normalised.
Pregnancy
Officially we would only consider a value above 25 mIU/mL as a positive pregnancy test. If your result is lower than 25, we would consider you to be not pregnant, but recommend testing again in a couple of weeks to see whether your result has changed, as Beta HCG does have a wide range of variability. INFORMATION ON Beta HCG LEVELS:
Values of less than or equal to 5.0 indicate a negative pregnancy test Values of greater than 25.0 indicate a positive pregnancy test Approximate Beta-HCG levels at weeks since last menstrual period:
3 weeks – 5 to 50
4 weeks – 5 to 426
5 weeks – 19 to 7,340
6 weeks – 1,080 to 56,500
7 to 8 weeks – 7,650 to 229,000
9 to 12 weeks – 25,700 to 288,000
13 to 16 weeks – 3,300 to 253,000
17 to 24 weeks (second trimester) – 4,060 to 165,400
25 weeks to term (third trimester) – 3,640 to 117,000
Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA)
Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) is an enzyme produced in the prostate by both normal and cancerous prostate cells. Elevated levels can be a sign of prostate cancer. But a high PSA can also be seen in other conditions that aren’t cancer, such as benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), prostatitis, urine retention, urinary tract infection, cycling and recent ejaculation. Your free/total PSA ratio result is detailed as a percentage (%). The free/total PSA ratio test includes measuring both free and total PSA and then calculating the ratio; this test has been recommended in men with a negative digital rectal exam accompanied by an elevated total PSA level. It can help doctors determine how likely it is that a man has prostate cancer when the total PSA result is “borderline” (total PSA level between 4 – 10 ug/L). It is believed that the higher the ratio, the less likely it is that a man has prostate cancer. If the free/total PSA ratio makes up more than 25%, he is at low risk of having prostate cancer. And that men with a lower percentage are at higher risk of having prostate cancer. However, these results need to be reviewed by a GP in the context of your overall health, either to repeat the test or to consider further investigations since a PSA test on its own doesn’t normally diagnose prostate cancer and can be unreliable.
Sexual Health
If your test has returned a result of Negative, it means you do not have any indication of antibodies in your system, meaning you do not have an infection. A positive result indicates that you have an infection. We recommend speaking to a GP about any positive results to determine whether further tests or treatment are required.
Thyroid
If your creatine kinase is elevated, this is most likely due to recent exercise but could also be a side-effect of certain medications amongst other things.    If you have not engaged in any physical activity recently, we would advise you to discuss this result with a GP.    If your creatine kinase level is lower than normal, this is most likely due to muscle mass loss secondary to physical inactivity, inflammation, or ageing.
If your thyroid antibodies are elevated this suggests that you might suffer from an autoimmune disorder like Hashimotos disease or Graves disease. We would advise you to discuss your results with a GP to consider further investigations and a review by an endocrinologist.
If your free T4 (thyroxine) level is higher than normal this might indicate an overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism). Low T4 might indicate mild hypothyroidism or appear after episodes of (intermittent) fasting. It might also be due to another (non-thyroidal) chronic illness that is currently affecting you. We advise speaking to a GP about this result, especially if your TSH level is low.
A low TSH result can indicate an overactive thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism) or an insufficiency of the pituitary gland that prevents it from producing TSH. A low TSH result can also occur in people with an underactive thyroid gland who are receiving too much thyroid hormone medication.   Symptoms of hyperthyroidism include heat intolerance, weight loss, rapid heartbeat, nervousness, insomnia, and breathlessness. If your TSH level is high this can indicate an underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism). We would advise speaking to a GP to discuss your result in the context of your wider health.
Uric Acid (Gout)
Low levels of uric acid are less common than high levels and are less of a health concern. This could be due to several reasons but is most commonly related to a diet low in purines, alcohol intake, liver or kidney disease. Most of the time, a high uric acid level occurs when your kidneys don’t eliminate uric acid efficiently. Things that may cause this slow-down in the removal of uric acid include rich foods, being overweight, having diabetes, taking certain diuretics (sometimes called water pills) and drinking too much alcohol. High levels of uric acid can cause gout, a painful build up of crystals in your joints which usually affects the big toe but can also affect the wrist, knees, ankles and elbows. If you are not feeling well, we would advise you to contact a GP to discuss this result. If you are otherwise well, we would recommend repeating this test in a few weeks to make sure it has normalised.
Vitamins & Minerals
Low Vitamin B12 levels could be due to many reasons, but is most commonly related to either inadequate intake, impaired absorption or increased need. Animal products such as meat, eggs, and shellfish are high in vitamin B12, as well as some processed foods like e.g. cereals. Vegans, and to a lesser degree vegetarians, are at risk for B12 deficiency if they do not consume either fortified foods (e.g. cereals) or take a vitamin supplement. We would advise you to discuss this result with a GP to consider supplementation. If your B12 levels are higher than normal, this is most likely due to an increased dietary intake. Animal products such as meat, eggs, and shellfish are high in vitamin B12, as well as some processed foods like e.g. cereals. B12 is a water soluble vitamin meaning you excrete it and do not build up dangerous levels in your body, so we do not tend to worry about high levels so long as you manage your diet and supplements accordingly.
A high Vitamin B9 level is likely due to an increased dietary intake or from taking supplements. We don’t worry about high doses of B9 because B vitamins are water-soluble and any excess not needed by your body can be excreted into your urine. If your levels are low, it could be caused by a decreased dietary intake, which is the most common reason. It could also be due to malabsorption (e.g. due an inflamed bowel), medications (e.g. aspirin or oral contraceptives) or increased requirements. High coffee consumption (= more than 4 cups a day) can also decrease your folate levels. We would advise you to discuss this result with a GP to consider supplementation.
Most people in the UK have a vitamin D deficiency due to our climate. If your vitamin D level is deficient, this is most likely due to a low dietary intake and/or lack of sunshine, and we would recommend discussing this with a GP  or to consider supplementation with Vitamin D tablets.   If your Vitamin D level is above the normal range, this might be due to taking extra vitamin D supplements. If this is the case we would advise you to stop taking these supplements as vitamin D is a lipo-soluble vitamin of which you can take too much.     
 
If your magnesium level is lower than normal this is commonly due to renal issues, poor magnesium intake, alcohol consumption, type 2 diabetes mellitus, pancreatitis, inflammatory bowel disease, medication intake such as proton pump inhibitors (Omeprazole) or some diuretics and hypothyroidism, amongst others.  Mild low levels are most often asymptomatic, and symptoms typically develop with moderate low magnesium levels (e.g., loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, fatigue).    If you have higher than normal levels of magnesium it is typically due to an excretion problem in the body or dehydration, rather than excessive consumption in your diet.  High levels of magnesium can also be seen in hypothyroidism, kidney failure, diabetic acidosis and Addison Disease.   We would advise you to discuss this result with a GP to consider further investigations.
 
If your calcium level is low, you might have no symptoms at all or you might have symptoms of numbness or muscle spasms.    Most cases of low calcium (called hypocalcaemia) are caused by problems with your parathyroid gland, vitamin D deficiency, kidney issues or medications (e.g. calcium channel blockers taken for hypertension or bisphosphonates taken for osteoporosis).   Higher than normal calcium levels can also occur. If you have high calcium results, you might have no symptoms at all or might might suffer from symptoms like nausea, abdominal pain, constipation, bone pains or depression. Most cases of high calcium (called hypercalcaemia) are commonly caused by problems with your parathyroid gland, vitamin D overdosing or medications.     If you are not feeling well, we would advise you to discuss these results with a GP, if not, we would recommend you to repeat them in a few weeks to make sure they have normalised.

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